Causal arguments are arguments which comprise a cause and an effect.
Lets take an example
An exit poll conducted by a popular television news channel reveals that the incumbent will lose the presidential election. The channel cites sharp decline in per capita income of the electorate leading to an anti-incumbency wave.
Cause: anti -incumbency
Effect: incumbent’s losing the election
Causal arguments attribute a cause to an effect.
The conclusion is based on causal logic. A certain cause is attributed to the effect;
X, therefore Y.
Words like- If, whenever, only, when – indicate that the argument is causal.
– If A then B or Whenever A happens, B happens …
In questions with if, whenever, only, observe the cause and the effect.
Whenever it rains in City A, it rains in City B
Cause – It rains in City A
Effect – It rains in City B
Logically consistent pair 1: It rains in City A, it rains in City B
Logically consistent pair 2: It doesn’t rain in City B, It doesn’t rain in City A,
- It rains in City B, It rains in City A
- It doesn’t rain in City A, It doesn’t rain in City B
Science of thinking tip:
If A, then B .. Cause = A , effect B.. There are two conclusions
Conclusion 1: cause happens, effect happens
Conclusion 2: effect doesn’t happen, cause doesn’t happen
George gets a tan when he goes to Miami
Cause – George goes to Miami Negated cause – George doesn’t go to Miami
Effect – George gets a tan Negated effect – George doesn’t get a tan
Consistent pair 1: George goes to Miami, George gets a tan
Consistent pair 2: George doesn’t get a tan, George doesn’t go to Miami
Now lets do a small exercise