# Critical Reasoning Exercise 2

Today, we will focus on causal arguments.

Causal arguments are arguments which comprise a cause and an effect.

Lets take an example

An exit poll conducted by a popular television news channel reveals that the incumbent will lose the presidential election. The channel cites sharp decline in per capita income of the electorate leading to an anti-incumbency wave.

Cause: anti -incumbency

Effect: incumbent’s losing the election

ReasonDecline in per capita income leads to the anti-incumbency wave, which leads to the incumbent losing the election

Causal arguments attribute a cause to an effect.

The conclusion is based on causal logic. A certain cause is attributed to the effect;

X, therefore Y.

When you see a critical reasoning question. First you need to break the argument into parts. Identify the

• cause

• effect

• reason behind the causal relationship

Do this logic drill. Type in your answers. Check the solutions after you click the submit button.

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Study each argument carefully. Identify cause and effect relationship..Add description here!

1.A large number of drivers routinely violate highway speed limits. Since driving at speeds that exceed posted limits is a significant factor in most accidents, installing devices in all cars that prevent those cars from traveling faster than the speed limit would prevent most accidents.

What is the

Cause :

Effect:

Recommendation:

2. Although Ackerburg’s subway system is currently operating at a deficit, the transit authority will lower subway fares next year. The authority projects that the lower fares will result in a ten percent increase in the number of subway riders. Since the additional income from the larger ridership will more than offset the decrease due to lower fares, the transit authority actually expects the fare reduction to reduce or eliminate the subway system’s operating deficit for next year.

What is the
Cause:

Effect:

3. Sparrow Airlines is planning to reduce its costs by cleaning its planes' engines once a month, rather than the industry standard of every six months. With cleaner engines, Sparrow can postpone engine overhauls, which take planes out of service for up to 18 months. Furthermore, cleaning an engine reduces its fuel consumption by roughly 1.2 percent.
What is the

Cause:

Effect:

Opinion:

4. Editorial: Consumers in North America think that by drinking frozen concentrated orange juice, they are saving energy, because it takes fewer truckloads to transport it than it takes to transport an equivalent amount of not-from-concentrate juice. But they are mistaken, for the amount of energy required to concentrate the juice is far greater than the energy difference in the juices’ transport.

What is the

Conclusion:

Reason:

Evidence 1:

5. Ythex has developed a small diesel engine that produces 30 percent less particulate pollution than the engine made by its main rival, Onez, now widely used in Marania; Ythex's engine is well-suited for use in the thriving warehousing businesses in Marania, although it costs more than the Onez engine. The Maranian government plans to ban within the next two years the use of diesel engines with more than 80 percent of current diesel engine particulate emissions in Marania, and Onez will probably not be able to retool its engine to reduce emissions to reach this target. So if the ban is passed, the Ythex engine ought to sell well in Marania after that time.

What is the

Cause:

Effect:

Reasoning:

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